Arsip Tag: tourism



Name : Carstensz Pyramid (Sudirman Mountain, Puncak Jaya, Jaya Kesuma)
Height : 4.884 m / 16.023 ft
Coordinates : 4° 05′ S, 137° 11′ E
Region : Indonesia Nearest
Airport : Timika (TIM)
Start of the normal route : Sugafa Village/Ilaga Village
Normal time : about 2 weeks
First to the top : Heinrich Harrer, Austria 1962

Carstensz Pyramid is the highest mountain on island of the New Guinea, on the greater Australian continent and in Oceania. It’s the highest point between the Himalayas and the Andes. The peak is located in what is variously called the Sudirman Range or the Dugunduguoo, in the western central highlands of Papua –Indonesian. While Puncak Jaya’s peak is free of glaciers, there are several on its slopes, including the Carstensz Glacier, the Meren Glacier, and Northwall Firn. Being equatorial, there is little variation in the mean temperature during the year (around 0.5°C) and the glaciers fluctuate on seasonal basis only slightly. Evidence from satellite imagery demonstrates that most of the glaciers atop the mountain are retreating rapidly and some have disappeared altogether the last 20 years

Irian jaya, Indonesia

Puncak Jaya

Sometimes called Mount Carstensz or the Carstensz Pyramid, is the highest mountain on the island of New Guinea, on the Australia-New Guinea continent and in Oceania. It is the highest point between the Himalaya and the Andes and the highest island peak in the world. The peak is located in what is variously called the Sudirman Range or the Dugunduguoo, in the western central highlands of Papua, the Indonesian western half of the island, and is the highest peak in the country.

As you visit Irian Jaya, you will be requested a police permit or in bahasa “Surat Jalan”. To Climb Carstensz Pyramid we have to have a security clearence from Indonesian Army (BAIS TNI). Please provide 2 photographs, 4 x 6 size, with red background and a copy of passport when you register the expedition.

“These documents needed at least 60 DAYS before your expedition start“.

The Carstensz Pyramid Expedition have two option expeditions programme: Classic Route trekking from Ilaga Village and Private Helicopter directly go to Base Camp Danau – Danau Valley. All these expeditions programme supported by our expert mountain guide climbers to lead you to Carstensz Pyramid. As our climbers guide have good track record to handle the local TV (filming trip) to Carstensz Pyramid and Puncak Jaya. They have qualified of mountaineering and climbing escorted experiences.

The history of climbing Carstensz Pyramid (Puncak Jaya)

The history of conquering the summit of the Carstensz Pyramid is full obstacles and mistakes. They include the impassable jungle, the confrontation with primitive tribes that have cannibalistic tendencies, the absence of maps and generally any information, the dangers of the Second World War, and finally the present problems with the guerilla freedom movement (OPM). Despite that, these days it is possible to get to the base camp by helicopter. It could be said that climbing this mountain is not a problem anymore, but the opposite is true.

The presence of the world’s largest goldmine (Grasberg), the unwillingness of Freeport of Indonesia, and the never ending bureaucracy and insistance of having the number of necessary permits, make Carstensz one of the most difficult summits within the Seven Summits.

The helicopter is immensely expensive, and trekking from the nearest airport takes six days. What’s more, a permit is needed for either of these. The mountain is frequently, and for a long periods of time, closed for all the expeditions. The last time this happened was between 1995 to July 2005. If you don’t have the required permit, even a helicopter won’t help you. Pilots are not allowed to take you on board because their company would loose the permit to fly in Papua if they do.

The mistake of the Dutch expedition in 1936

Attempts to climb the highest peak of the Papuan island’s New Guinea, were not made before the Second World War. In 1936 the Royal Netherlands Geographical Society sponsored a group of climbers lead by Colijn to climb the highest peak. They did not climb the Carstensz Pyramid but Ngga Pulu, which was considered the highest in their time.

The region’s glaciers have shrinked since then substantially, and consequently, the rocky Carstensz has since then been found higher. After the war, the focal point of Mountaineering was the Himalayas and the Andes. In the 1960s, the interest of climbers began to shift towards Carstensz once again.

Heinrich Harrer – the first white man on Carstensz – 1962


The first mountaineer who made it to the top of Carstensz Pyramid was the Austrian climber Heinrich Harrer. This was on 13 February 1962. The other climbers in his team were Russell Kippax and Albert Huizenga. The fate of Heinrich Harrer during the Second World War, and his meeting with the young Dalailame, was depicted in the movie „Seven years in Tibet“.

Heinrich Harrer wrote a bestselling book about his expedition entitled „I come from the Stone Age“. In it he gives a description of his first ascent of the Carstensz Pyramid, and he also describes all the surrounding summits. A large part of the book is devoted to his stay in Papua. Despite all the adventures, which he had encountered during his long and rich life, Heinrich Harrer died at the respectable age of 93. He died on January 7, 2006 in Austria.

Carstensz contra Reinhold Messner


Dick Basse is the man who invented the Seven Summits project ? climbing the seven highest peaks of the seven continents (meant geographically not geologically). The seven peaks are Mt Everest 8850m (29035 ft) – Asia, Aconcagua 6968 m (22861 ft)? South America, Denali /Mc Kinley 6195 m (20325 ft)? North America – Alaska, Kilimanjaro 5963 m (19564 ft) – Africa, Elbrus 5642 m (18511 ft) –Europe, Vinson Massif 4897 m (16066) – Antarctica and Kosciusko 2229 m (7313 ft) – Australia.

There were some doubts about Australia. The highest peak of Australia is Mt. Kosciusko, which can be reached by tourists. Reinhold Messner, the second person to finish the Seven Summits project (not long after Dick Bass), included the Carstensz Pyramid in the project. He advocated leaving out Kosciusko. The reason stated by Messner, is that Carstensz Pyramid 4884 m (16023 ft) is the highest mountain of Australia and Oceania.

This divided the mountaineers into two camps, Kosciusko and Carstensz. It was (and still is) difficult to arrive to a final judgment as discussed on our 7 Summits history page. Regardless of which of the two mountains belong among the 7 Summits, the Carstensz Pyramid became the eight summit of the Seven Summits project. Without it the project is considered unfinished. This is the reason why it now attracts the top climbers from all over the world, and you would be surprised at who you might meet at the Base Camp.

God bless you,


(Ucup budug)
Visit indonesia.

HISTORY OF KOMODO ISLAND (Wonder of the world)


Beautiful beaches and stunning, with crystal clear water and blue symbolizes the natural charm of the most beautiful. Comfortable and fresh garden if I could become world’s natural attractions, I definitely would go to Indonesia country on Komodo Island is the New 7 Wonders of the World, yeah, this island is truly a wonder of the world, Because this island is an island with ancient ecosystem that still exist until now.

Komodo Island is located between the islands of Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Komodo Island includes three major islands, namely Komodo, Rinca, and Padar, as well as many smaller ones, with a total area of 1817 square kilometers (603 square kilometers of land). Komodo Island has a National Park which was established in 1980 to protect the Komodo dragon. Then, it is also intended to protect other species, including marine animals. These islands originated from volcanic processes.
In the Park there are various types of protected animals. There are 277 species, most of these animals is a blend of Asia and Australia. The animals consisted of 32 species of mammals, 128 species of birds and 37 species of reptiles. Until now, perhaps animal species found on Komodo Island has increased or decreased.About Komodo Island History
Komodo Island discovered in 1910 by a Dutch man who was then colonized Indonesia. Dutch troops were led by Steyn van Hens Broek. At that Steyn van Hens Broek wanted to prove to a report from troops who say they have encountered an animal resembling a dragon. Then Steyn van Hens Broek killed a komodo dragon for research in Bogor.



Komodo National Park lies in the Wallacea Region of Indonesia, identified by WWF and Conservation International as a global conservation priority area. The Park is located between the islands of Sumbawa and Flores at the border of the Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) and Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTP) provinces. It includes three major islands, Komodo, Rinca and Padar, and numerous smaller islands together totaling 603 km2 of land. The total size of Komodo National Park is presently 1,817 km2. Proposed extensions of 25 km2 of land (Banta Island) and 479 km2 of marine waters would bring the total surface area up to 2,321 km2.

1. History
Komodo National Park was established in 1980 and was declared a World Heritage Site and a Man and Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1986. The park was initially established to conserve the unique Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), first discovered by the scientific world in 1911 by J.K.H. Van Steyn. Since then conservation goals have expanded to protecting its entire biodiversity, both marine and terrestrial.

The majority of the people in and around the Park are fishermen originally from Bima (Sumbawa), Manggarai, South Flores, and South Sulawesi. Those from South Sulawesi are from the Suku Bajau or Bugis ethnic groups. The Suku Bajau were originally nomadic and moved from location to location in the region of Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara and Maluku, to make their livelihoods. Descendents of the original people of Komodo, the Ata Modo, still live in Komodo, but there are no pure blood people left and their culture and language is slowly being integrated with the recent migrants.

Little is known of the early history of the Komodo islanders. They were subjects of the Sultanate of Bima, although the island’s remoteness from Bima meant its affairs were probably little troubled by the Sultanate other than by occasional demand for tribute.

2. Demographics
There are presently almost 4,000 inhabitants living within the park spread out over four settlements (Komodo, Rinca, Kerora, and Papagaran). All villages existed prior to 1980 before the area was declared a national park. In 1928 there were only 30 people living in Komodo Village, and approximately 250 people on Rinca Island in 1930. The population increased rapidly, and by 1999, there were 281 families numbering 1,169 people on Komodo, meaning that the local population had increased exponentially. Komodo Village has had the highest population increase of the villages within the Park, mostly due to migration by people from Sape, Manggarai, Madura, and South Sulawesi. The number of buildings in Kampung Komodo has increased rapidly from 30 houses in 1958, to 194 houses in 1994, and 270 houses in 2000. Papagaran village is similar in size, with 258 families totaling 1,078 people. As of 1999, Rinca’s population was 835, and Kerora’s population was 185 people. The total population currently living in the Park is 3,267 people, while 16,816 people live in the area immediately surrounding the Park.

3. Education
The average level of education in the villages of Komodo National Park is grade four of elementary school. There is an elementary school located in each of the villages, but new students are not recruited each year. On average, each village has four classes and four teachers. Most of the children from the small islands in the Kecamatan Komodo (Komodo, Rinca, Kerora, Papagaran, Mesa) do not finish elementary school. Less than 10% of those which do graduate from elementary school will continue to high school since the major economic opportunity (fishing) does not require further education. Children must be sent to Labuan Bajo to attend high school, but this is rarely done in fishermen’s families.

4. Health
Most of the villages located in and around the Park have few fresh water facilities available, if any, particularly during the dry season. Water quality declines during this time period and many people become ill. Malaria and diarrhea are rampant in the area. On Mesa island, with a population of around 1,500 people, there is no fresh water available. Fresh water is brought by boat in jerry cans from Labuan Bajo. Each family needs an average of Rp 100,000.- per month to buy fresh water (2000). Almost every village has a local medical facility with staff, and at least a paramedic. The quality of medical care facilities is low.

5. Socio-cultural and Anthropologic conditions

Traditional Costum : Traditional communities in Komodo, Flores and Sumbawa have been subjected to outside influences and the influence of traditional customs is dwindling. Television, radio, and increased mobility have all played a part in accelerating the rate of change. There has been a steady influx of migrants into the area. At the moment nearly all villages consist of more than one ethnic group.

Religion : The majority of fishermen living in the villages in the vicinity of the Park are Muslims. Hajis have a strong influence in the dynamics of community development. Fishermen hailing from South Sulawesi (Bajau, Bugis) and Bima are mostly Moslems. The community from Manggarai are mostly Christians.

Anthoropology and Language : There are several cultural sites within the Park, particularly on Komodo Island. These sites are not well documented, however, and there are many questions concerning the history of human inhabitance on the island. Outside the Park, in Warloka village on Flores, there is a Chinese trading post remnant of some interest. Archeological finds from this site have been looted in the recent past. Most communities in and around the Park can speak Bahasa Indonesia. Bajo language is the language used for daily communication in most.

6. Terrestrial physical environment

Topography : The topography is varied, with slopes from 0 – 80%. There is little flat ground, and that is generally located near the beach. The altitude varies from sea level to 735 m above sea level. The highest peak is Gunung Satalibo on Komodo Island.

Geology : The islands in Komodo National Park are volcanic in origin. The area is at the juncture of two continental plates: Sahul and Sunda. The friction of these two plates has led to large volcanic eruptions and caused the up-thrusting of coral reefs. Although there are no active volcanoes in the park, tremors from Gili Banta (last eruption 1957) and Gunung Sangeang Api (last eruption 1996) are common. West Komodo probably formed during the Jurasic era approximately 130 million years ago. East Komodo, Rinca, and Padar probably formed approximately 49 million years ago during the Eocene era.

Climate : Komodo National Park has little or no rainfall for approximately 8 months of the year, and is strongly impacted by monsoonal rains. High humidity levels year round are only found in the quasi-cloud forests on mountain tops and ridges. Temperatures generally range from 170C to 340C, with an average humidity level of 36%. From November through March the wind is from the west and causes large waves that hit the entire length of Komodo island’s west beach. From April through October the wind is dry and large waves hit the south beaches of Rinca and Komodo islands.

7. Terrestrial Ecosystems
The terrestrial ecosystems are strongly affected by the climate: a lengthy dry season with high temperatures and low rainfall, and seasonal monsoon rains. The Park is situated in a transition zone between Australian and Asian flora and fauna. Terrestrial ecosystems include open grass-woodland savanna, tropical deciduous (monsoon) forest, and quasi cloud forest.

Due to the dry climate, terrestrial plant species richness is relatively low. The majority of terrestrial species are xerophytic and have specific adaptations to help them obtain and retain water. Past fires have selected for species that are fire-adapted, such as some grass species and shrubs. Terrestrial plants found in Komodo National Park include grasses, shrubs, orchids, and trees. Important food tree species for the local fauna include Jatropha curkas, Zizyphus sp., Opuntia sp., Tamarindus indicus, Borassus flabellifer, Sterculia foetida, Ficus sp., Cicus sp., ‘Kedongdong hutan’ (Saruga floribunda), and ‘Kesambi’ (Schleichera oleosa).

8. Terrestrial Fauna
The terrestrial fauna is of rather poor diversity in comparison to the marine fauna. The number of terrestrial animal species found in the Park is not high, but the area is important from a conservation perspective as some species are endemic.. Many of the mammals are Asiatic in origin (e.g., deer, pig, macaques, civet). Several of the reptiles and birds are Australian in origin. These include the orange-footed scrub fowl, the lesser sulpher-crested cockatoo and the nosy friarbird.

Reptiles : The most famous of Komodo National Park’s reptiles is the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis). It is among the world’s largest reptiles and can reach 3 meters or more in length and weigh over 70kg. To find out more about this fascinating creature click here.


Other than the Komodo Dragon twelve terrestrial snake species are found on the island. including the cobra (Naja naja sputatrix), Russel’s pit viper (Vipera russeli), and the green tree vipers (Trimeresurus albolabris). Lizards include 9 skink species (Scinidae), geckos (Gekkonidae), limbless lizards (Dibamidae), and, of course, the monitor lizards (Varanidae). Frogs include the Asian Bullfrog (Kaloula baleata), Oreophyne jeffersoniana and Oreophyne darewskyi. They are typically found at higher, moister altitudes.

Mammals : Mammals include the Timor deer (Cervus timorensis), the main prey of the Komodo dragon, horses (Equus sp.), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), wild boar (Sus scrofa vittatus), long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus lehmanni), the endemic Rinca rat (Rattus rintjanus), and fruit bats. One can also find goats, dogs and domestic cats.

Birds : One of the main bird species is the orange-footed scrub fowl (Megapodius reinwardti), a ground dwelling bird. In areas of savanna, 27 species were observed. Geopelia striata and Streptopelia chinensis were the most common species. In mixed deciduous habitat, 28 bird species were observed, and Philemon buceroides, Ducula aenea, and Zosterops chloris were the most common.

9. Marine physical environment
The marine area constitutes 67% of the Park. The open waters in the Park are between 100 and 200 m deep. The straits between Rinca and Flores and between Padar and Rinca, are relatively shallow (30 to 70 m deep), with strong tidal currents. The combination of strong currents, coral reefs and islets make navigation around the islands in Komodo National Park difficult and dangerous. Sheltered deep anchorage is available at the bay of Loh Liang on Komodo’s east coast, the South East coast of Padar, and the bays of Loh Kima and Loh Dasami on Rinca.

In the North of the Park water temperature ranges between 25 – 29°C. In the middle, the temperature ranges between 24 and 28°C. The temperatures are lowest in the South, ranging from 22 – 28°C. Water salinity is about 34 ppt and the water is quite clear, although the waters closer to the islands are relatively more turbid.

10. Marine ecosystems
Indonesia is the only equatorial region in the world where there is an exchange of marine flora and fauna between the Indian and Pacific oceans. Passages in Nusa Tenggara (formerly the Lesser Sunda Islands) between the Sunda and Sahul shelves allow movement between the Pacific and Indian oceans. The three main ecosystems in Komodo National Park are sea grass beds, coral reefs, and mangrove forests. The Park is probably a regular cetacean migration route.

11. Marine flora
The three major coastal marine plants are algae, sea grasses and mangrove trees. Algae are primitive plants, which do not have true roots, leaves or stems. An important reef-building algae is the red coralline algae, which actually secretes a hard limestone skeleton that can encrust and cement dead coral together. Sea grasses are modern plants that produce flowers, fruits and seeds for reproduction. As their name suggests, they generally look like large blades of grass growing underwater in sand near the shore. Thallasia sp. and Zastera spp. are the common species found in the Park. Mangroves trees can live in salty soil or water, and are found throughout the Park. An assessment of mangrove resources identified at least 19 species of true mangroves and several more species of mangrove associates within the Park’s borders.

12. Marine fauna
Komodo National Park includes one of the world’s richest marine environments. It consists of forams, cnidaria (includes over 260 species of reef building coral), sponges (70 species), ascidians, marine worms, mollusks, echinoderms, crustaceans, cartilaginous and bony fishes (over 1,000 species), marine reptiles, and marine mammals (dolphins, whales, and dugongs). Some notable species with high commercial value include sea cucumbers (Holothuria), Napoleon wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), and groupers.

Okay, of amazement at the top, are you not interested to blends with beauty of the komodo islands? Let go my friend…VISIT TO INDONESIA.

By : Ucup budug
Bogor, indonesia.